A 24-hour transport strike on Friday meant longer waits and disruption to the journeys of thousands, with trains, buses, underground lines, and air travel all affected.
Some sectors began the strike on Thursday evening, with the disruption expected to continue until the end of service on Friday.
In Rome, the LuceVerde site which provides real-time updates on traffic congestion, warned that traffic was moving more slowly than usual on all the major roads in and out of the centre. The Metro was not running at all, together with the Roma-Lido train line.
For the latest updates, commuters are advised to check the websites of transport company ATAC or Muoversi a Roma.
Two overlapping strikes have been called by different union groups in the capital, one of four and one of 24 hours. The strike action will affect local buses, trains, and underground lines, with service guaranteed between 5 pm and 8 pm. Disturbance is likely to be worst between 11 am and 3 pm, when both strikes will be happening simultaneously.
In Milan, the strike was called between 8:45 am and 3 pm and from 6 pm until the end of service. Transport company ATM said mid-morning on Friday that the Metro line 5 was suspended while a “good service” was operating on lines 1, 2, and 3.
In Florence, local bus drivers will strike between 3:15 pm and 7:15 pm, while in Bologna and Ferrara, disruption to local buses and trains is expected all day, though service is guaranteed before 8:30 am and between 4:30 pm and 7:30 pm.
Those undertaking longer journeys could be at risk of disruption too, with the strike affecting national train, aeroplane, and even boat services
Airport workers will undertake a 24-hour strike, while cabin crew are striking for between four and 14 hours.